Dear All
The Part 7 of ” Similes & Metaphors of Pathology” is here.  ENJOY LEARNING 🙂
 Note: Mobile users please use landscape mode for complete view.
More interesting ones to come in Part 8!….
Comments and suggestions are welcome.


Bone of Herring fish  ( Source)    (Herring Bone)


Herring bone pattern in Fibrosarcoma ( Source)

Herring bone pattern in fibrosarcoma

the elongated nuclei of the tumor cells in fibrosarcoma are positioned at sharp angles to each other in linear arrays. This pattern is resembles that of bone of herring fish and hence referred to as “herring bone” Pattern and is a characteristic feature of Fibrosarcoma.


Ink dot


Ink dot nucleus of superficial cells ( source )

 Ink dot nucleus of the superficial cells, in the Pap smear.The superficial cells are large, polyhedral cells with abundant cytoplasm. The nucleus is very small less than 6 microns in diameter. This karyopyknotic nuclei resembles “ink dot” and  is the characteristic of superficial cells which distinguishes from the intermediate cells.

Claw Clutching Ball


Claw Clutching Ball (source ) appearance in lichen nitidus

 Claw Clutching Ball AppearanceThe histological appearance of lichen nitidus.

It is  an inflammatory dermatosis consisting of multiple, tiny, discrete, skin-colored papules affecting mainly children and young adults

Here the hyperplastic epidermis with rete ridges is referred to as ‘claw’ and the aggregates of  inflammatory infiltrate in the dermis is referred to as ‘ball’, giving rise to characteristic claw clutching ball appearance..




Leaf like pattern in Phylloides tumor ( source )

 Leaf like pattern in Phylloides tumor of breast.

Phyllodes tumor, derives its name from the Greek word ‘phullon‘ or leaf.

Phyllodes tumors is characterized by hypercellular stroma and ‘cleft-like‘ or cystic spaces lined by epithelium.  The  stroma grows into these spaces in a characteristic “leaf like”




Cheesy appearance of caseous necrosis(source)

 Caseous necrosis : is a type of necrosis where the necrotic tissue grossly resembles a ‘cheese’ or cheesy tan to white appearance.It is seen in tuberculosis.

Caseous necrosis is just a combination of coagulative and liquefactive necrosis.  

It contains a mixture of protein and fat. The fat is derived from the bacterial wall.




Cigar shaped nuclei of smooth muscle ( source )

 The elongated, “cigar-shaped” nuclei of the smooth muscle cells

Smooth muscle nuclei are long and have rounded ends which resembles that of a ‘cigar’.

This is an important feature to distinguish smooth muscle tumors like leiomyoma and leiomyosarcomas from other spindle cell neoplasms.


Stag Horn


Stag horn renal calculi (source )

These are are branched stones that occupy a large portion of the collecting system.

These fill the renal pelvis and branch into few  or all of the calices thus resembling that of a ‘stag horn’

These are composed of mixtures of magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) and/or calcium carbonate apatite.


Tree bark


 Tree bark appearance of aorta in syphilitic aortitis.       ( View source )

 Tree bark appearance of aorta in syphilitic aortitis.

The aorta shows multiple gelatinous plaques which are  separated by stellate scars and furrows resembling that of a “tree bark”.




Ribbon like sections in microtomy ( source )

 Ribbon like sections

A ribbon of thin sections of paraffin embedded tissue,  prepared by microtomy.