Author: Dr Swathi Sahni
Editor: Dr Vijay Shankar S

1. Which sample of urine is suitable for routine examination?
2. Define oliguria, anuria, nocturia and polyuria?
3. What are the different types of urine specimen?
4. How do one collect urine in infants?
5. What is a 24-hour urine sample?
6. What are the methods of preservation of urine and amount of preservatives used?
7. What are the changes that can occur in standing urine at room temperature?
8. What is the normal value of specific gravity and what does it signify?
9. What are the factors affecting the specific gravity of urine?
10. What are the methods of estimation of specific gravity of urine?
11. What are the causes of increased specific gravity in urine?
12. What are the causes of decreased specific gravity in urine?
13. What information does urine color give?
14. What causes chyluria and how to confirm it?
15. What leads to cloudy urine?
16. What is the significance of urine odor?
17. What are the causes of acidic urine?
18. What are the causes of proteinuria?
19. What is benign proteinuria?
20. Why should urine be acidified before testing for albuminuria (if urine is alkaline)?
21. What is orthostatic proteinuria?
22. What is microalbuminuria (micro proteinuria)?
23. What causes myoglobinuria?
24. In which disease both albuminuria and Bence Jones proteins are present?
25. In the heat test of proteins, why is only the upper part of the tube is heated?