Welcome to the AMUSING ways of learning Pathology.

Simile: As per Merriam-Webster dictionary, simile is a phrase that uses the words like or as to describe someone or something by comparing it with someone or something else that is similar. Metaphor is a word or phrase for one thing that is used to refer to another thing in order to show or suggest that they are similar.
In teaching undergraduate pathology we often compare lesions or findings with something we know in common, with something we come across in day to day lives.   Studies have shown that this enhances learning among students!

This is the part 1 of “5 part series” of “Similes & Metaphors in Pathology”. ENJOY LEARNING 🙂

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Watch this space… Many more to come!


Bunch of Grapes

  • Macroscopic and radiological appearance of hydaditiform mole
  • Bunch of grapes: is a group of hydatidiform villi, with large vesicles. These  represent  the cisterns, which are formed due to generalised edema.



Banana shaped Gametocyte

  • It denotes the shape of the gametocyte of the protozoan parasite, Plasmodium Falciparum. It can be banana/crescent/sausage shaped.

Green Apple

 figure-5-apple-green-birefringence-of-the-congo-red-positive-amyloid-material-of-the Apple-green birefringence
  • One of the important diagnostic feature of amyloidosis. The amyloid is stained with congo red stain and is observed under polarized microscope. Here, the amyloid fibrils, which are nothing but the proteins exhibiting the beta sheet structure exhibits apple green birefringence.

Orange Skin


Peau d orange appearance (source)

  • Peau d orange appearance: means orange peel skin appearance.
  • it is a dimpled texture of the skin, seen in breast carcinomas. This texture is because of tethering of the sweat ducts due to infiltration of malignant cells, and thereby preventing the skin to swell.
  • it can also be seen in cases of chronic abscess or in cases of inflammatory breast carcinoma.


indianjvascendovascsurg_2016_3_3_96_186726_f1-001potato tumor (source )
  • Potato tumor:
  • A term used for describing carotid body tumor which manifests as the firm nodular mass of the neck, resembling a potato.
  • Carotid body tumor is a paraganglioma located in head and neck region.



Potato Nose ( source)

  • Potato nose: as in Rhinopyma, where the nose can become bulbous.



Strawberry tongue ( source)

 Strawberry or raspberry tongue

  • Seen in scarlet fever.
  • It is because of inflammation of the tongue with hypertrophy of fungiform papillae and thus its characteristic appearance.
  • it is also seen in Kawasaki disease: it is an acute febrile vasculitic syndrome which is seen in childhood.



Strawberry cervix ( source)

  • Strawberry cervix: An appearance of cervix seen in trichomonas vaginalis infection
  • Here the cervix has a papilliform appearance and is punctate resembling the appearance of a strawberry.

coffee bean


Brenner tumor (source)

  • It is the nucleus of the cell which looks like coffee bean, where the shape of the bean is elliptical and has a central grove.
  • it is seen in Brenner tumor of ovary. This is one of the rare surface epithelial tumor of Ovary.

Onion ring


Onion ring appearance in castleman disease ( source)

  1. Onion ring like arrangement. in Castleman’s disease, a rare disease of lymphnodes. Hyaline Vascular type- a subtype of Castleman disease, Here, the  lymphoid follicles are abnormal with regressed germinal centres. These are surrounded by Mantle Zone which is widened and composed of small lymphocytes in an onion ring like arrangement.
  2.  concentric fibrosis of central and penicillary arteries of spleen. It is seen in systemic lupus erythematosus