Authors: Dr Vijay Shankar S, Dr Amita Kumari

1. What is pleural fluid?
2. What is the normal volume of pleural fluid?
3. What is the function of pleural fluid?
4. How is pleural fluid collected?
5. What are the differences between transudate and exudate?


6. What is the significance of appearance/color of the pleural fluid?
7. What is chylothorax?
8. What are the differences between chylous and pseudochylous effusions?
9. What are the components of pleural fluid analysis?
10. What is the significance of pH in pleural fluid analysis.?
11. What is the significance of differential cell count in pleural fluid?
12. What are the causes of foul smelling pleural fluid.?
13. What are the causes of increased amylase in pleural fluid?
14. What is the significance of macrophages in pleural fluid?
15. What special tests can be done in pleural fluid and in what conditions.?
16. What is the role of cytological examination of pleural fluid?
17. What are the cytological features of malignancy in pleural fluid?
18. What is the significance of ADA levels in pleural effusions and what precautions should be taken for its interpretation.?